To enter into force, the agreement will then need to be ratified by the European Parliament, and the issue of human rights could be a sticking point.
According to the EU, the deal was brokered after China committed to pursue ratification of the International Labour Organisation’s rules on forced labour.
On Tuesday, the EU expressed concerns about the restrictions on freedom of expression, as well as concerns over on access to information, and the intimidation and surveillance of journalists. The detentions, trials and sentencing of human rights defenders, lawyers and intellectuals in China were also raised.
Macron stressed EU nations’ concerns over human rights and called for the closing of internment camps, according to the speech provided by his office. He also pleaded in favour of “measures aiming at banning forced labour” and wished for “a visit of independent experts from the United Nations.”
The EU hopes the agreement, known as CAI, will help correct an imbalance in market access and create new investment opportunities for European companies in China by ensuring they can compete on an equal footing when operating in the country. EU companies face competition from state-owned Chinese enterprises that may get government support and easier access to financing.
“The EU has traditionally been much more open than China to foreign investment,” the EU said. “This is true as regards foreign investment in general. China now commits to open up to the EU in a number of key sectors.”
According to EU figures, China is now the bloc’s second-biggest trading partner behind the United States, and the EU is China’s largest trading partner. China and Europe trade on average over €1 billion a day.
Xi said China and the EU “rose to the challenge” despite the impact of the coronavirus pandemic, the official Xinhua News Agency said. Xi said the agreement will provide greater market access and brighter co-operation prospects.”
China is especially important to Germany, where companies like BMW, Daimler and Volkswagen make a large share of their profits in the world’s largest car market. The director-general of the Federation of German Industries, Joachim Lang, said the agreement was a significant step, but he added that “what is decisive is rather how the Chinese government in fact implements these improvements and if the planned implementation mechanisms take effect.”
The 27-nation bloc said the agreement is the most ambitious that China has ever agreed and will give additional access to many areas including the electric cars and hybrid vehicles sector, as well as private hospitals, telecoms, cloud and financial services, international maritime transport and air transport-related services.
But it has the potential to cause tension with the administration of US President-elect Joe Biden only weeks after the EU proposed a trans-Atlantic dialogue to address “the strategic challenge presented by China’s growing international assertiveness.”
The EU, however, said the investment agreement will give the EU the same level of market access in China that the United States has and insisted that the deal will benefit other trading partners by getting China to commit to high standards of conduct.
Beijing is emphasising business and investment ties with Europe at a time when tensions with Washington over Chinese industry development ambitions and spying allegations have disrupted access to US markets and technology. Xi made no mention of China’s tariff war with Washington but invoked free trade and multilateralism, an indirect criticism of President Donald Trump’s “American first” policies that reject multinational agreements.
Xi expressed hope that Europe will “adhere to free trade” and create a non-discriminatory environment for Chinese investors, according to Xinhua. It said he noted China and Europe “support multilateralism.”
Beijing has tried without success to recruit France, Germany and other governments as allies against Washington. They criticise Trump’s tariff hikes and other tactics, but echo US complaints that Beijing violates its market-opening commitments and steals or improperly pressures foreign companies to hand over technology.
The EU said the agreement, which includes provisions for settling disputes, should increase the transparency of Chinese state subsidies and make sustainable development a key element of the relationship between the EU and China.
The deal also includes clear rules against the forced transfer of technologies, a practice in which a government requires foreign investors to share their technology in exchange for market access.